" I built for the a mysterious house in the land of Zahi (dj -
h) like the horizon of heaven which is in the sky, (named ); '
The-House-of-Ramses-Ruler -of-Heliopolis,-L.P.H., -in-PEKANAN as the
property of thy name. I fashioned thy great statue resting in the midst
of it (named) 'Amon-of-Ramses-Ruler-of-Heliopolis,-L.P.H. ' The Asiatics
of Retenu (Rtnw) came to it, bearing their tribute before it, for it was
divine." Harris Papyrus Pl. 9. Breasted: Ancient Records of
Egypt, Vol. 4. p. 123 #219.
The Harris Papyrus, the most magnificent and complete of the Egyptian
papyri, now in the British Museum is 133 ft. long, containing 117
columns. It was written by the son of Ramesses III, on the day of the
King's death and details the donations of the Pharaoh during his 35-year
Ramesses III was know as the richest of all the Egyptian Kings
(Diodorus Siculus 1:62) and yet he arose from an Egypt that had been
devastated for many years before his accession to the throne.
" The land of Egypt was overthrown from without, and every man was
(thrown out) of his right; they had no chief mouth (r -hr) for many
years formerly until other times. The land of Egypt was in the hands of
the chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbor, great and
small. Other times have come after it, with empty years, Yarsu, a
certain Syrian (H -rw) was with them as chief. He set the whole land
tributary before him together; he united his companions and plundered
their possessions. They made gods like men, and no offerings were
presented in the temples." Harris Papyrus Pl. 75. Breasted Ancient
Records of Egypt Vol. 4. P. 199 #198.
(We have shown elsewhere that Yarsu (Arsu) the Syrian, Chancellor Bey
was in fact the representative of Solomon, looking after the latter's
young son as Regent of Egypt on behalf of the Israelite King.)
Thus we see from the Harris Papyrus how Ramesses III starts he rule
with Egypt in ruins and in a very short time becomes the richest King of
The major first clue can be found also in the Harris papyrus in Plate
" I made for thee a great sacrificial tablet of silver in hammered
work, mounted with fine gold, the inlay figures being of Ketem-gold,
bearing statues of the king, L.P.H. of gold of hammered work..........."
Breasted op. cit. p.117 # 199.
Ketem is a Hebrew word meaning gold.
The question is from where did Ramesses III get the Ketem-gold.
We started this lecture with the description of Ramesses III building
a Temple dedicated to the god Amon, outside of Egypt, a unique event, to
accept the tribute of the Asiatics. The question has always been where
is Djahi Pakaanan and Retenu.
Egyptologists have always recognized that Djahi and Retenu were in
Palestine -Syria with Retenu being to the North of Djahi. ( Ancient
Egyptian Onomastica: Alan H. Gardiner Vol. 1 p. 145) but often the lines
were blurred with there being an upper Retenu, which often overlapped
Djahi ( Gardiner op. cit. p. 147).
Discoveries are found in the most peculiar ways. I was in the process
of reprinting the five volumes Ancient Records and was going through the
proofs very late at night in bed. I came upon that paragraph at the top
of this lecture and wondered about Djahi anew. On a hunch, I asked the
mother of my children to look in the index of the Times Atlas to see if
anything was there beginning with Djahi. After some minutes she informed
me that she had found one name and I casually took the coordinates from
the index and noted that it was on the page for Israel.
Suddenly it hit like a flash of lightening and the hairs stood up on
the back of my neck. Look at any topological map of Israel and you will
see that the first village in the Judean Hills after coming out of the
desert, on the way to Jerusalem is Djaharya (Djahi - Ra - Iya , the
village of Ra in Djahi).
Any Egyptian army that took the direct road to Jerusalem rather than
the coast road, would describe the Judean Hills as a new land. The land
of Djahi. Perhaps when they took the coast road and came to the new land
they called it Retenu. Same country, different accesses!
Confirmation was afforded by the great American explorer of Bible
lands, Dr. Edward Robinson who in 1838 actually walked the route from
Egypt to Jerusalem. On the road from Beer Sheba to Hebron his
description is telling.
"Here we met several wild savage-looking Arabs; and further on, a
man on horseback, the first we had seen since leaving Egypt.....Not long
after, we came upon herds of neat cattle and donkeys grazing; and at
length at a quarter past 11 o'clock, got sight of the village of
edh-Dhoheriyeh on the summit of a hill terminating the Wadi, the head of
which here opens into a green basin. This and the hills around were
covered with flocks and neat cattle in the ancient patriarchal style,
with many horses, asses and camels, all in fine order; and affording to
us a most pleasing prospect, after having been for thirty days confined
to the dreary nakedness of the desert. We reached Djoheriyeh at 11h 35'
" (Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea.
A journal of travel in the year 1838. E. Robinson and E. Smith. P. 308 )
Robinson had found Djahi Pakaanan without realizing it.
But there was more.
" The village of Dhoheriyeh lies high, and is visible from a great
distance in every direction. It is a rude assemblage of stone hovels;
many of which are half under ground, and others broken down. A castle or
fortress apparently once stood there; the remains of a square tower are
still to be seen, now used as dwelling;..." Robinson op.cit. p. 311)
Early map showing route from Egypt to Jerusalem (El Kuds).
Note change in topography when arriving at Djaharya
Did he actually see what had once been an Egyptian Temple built by
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