RAMESSES III IS SHISHAK/SUSAKIM -
"The extender of Egypt"
In spite of all the circumstantial evidence that Shoshenq could not possibly
be Shishak (see the web-site links for Egypt,
Shishak, and Zerah) and that
only one Egyptian King could possibly have fitted the Biblical profile of this
Ramesses III, the most common question asked is
how the Biblical historian came up with the name Shishak.
During our expedition to Medinet Habu with the past head of the Cairo Museum,
Mohammed Saleh, he did confirm the inscription of Ramesses III daughters’ who
called him ShSh but that has not been enough to satisfy the dyed in the wool
We hope the following evidence will be enough for some, there will never be
enough for others J
|One of the five names of an Egyptian King, was the so-called
Horus name which in the earliest dynasties were always written in a serekh,
Whilst more usual in the earliest dynasties, the Horus name continued to be
used even at the time of Ramesses III and two great Egyptologists recorded the
names as below.
What is immediately obvious is the name "Susekh" which any Israelite scribe
might write as Shishak. Thus IN EGYPT one of the names of Ramesses III contained
the Biblical name. Those who have scorned the inscription over the entrance of
the Cairo Museum which includes "Shishak" can be scornful no more. Shishak was
an Egyptian name not an Israelite one.
But what in fact did it mean?
Modern transliteration has the phrase swsx-Kmt Which means "Extender of
Egypt". This would be the perfect name for a King who was rampaging around the
Judean Hills and who took all the treasures of Solomon’s Temple.
So we have one of the titles of Ramesses III as swsx-Kmt "Extender of Egypt".
Is there any evidence that the Biblical scribes knew not only of the phrase
"extender" i.e. Shishak but of the name kmt = Egypt also.
If we look in the Septuagint, we will find a remarkable passage which
describes what the Masoretic text has as Shishak.
"And Susakim (Shishak) gave to Jeroboam to be his wife Ano, the eldest
sister of Thelkemina, his own wife. She was great among the daughters of the
king and she bore to Jeroboam Abijah." Septuagint,
Reignorum III: 12, 24e
There the name used is Susakim. It is quite likely that in the phrase
"swsx-Kmt" the final "t" was not vocalized and that Susakim was in fact a direct
transliteration of one of the titles of Ramesses III i.e. "Extender of Egypt" in
Michael S. Sanders
Irvine CA 92604
Tuesday, June 17, 2003
With thanks to Aayko Eyma and Johnny Zwick for their kind